Mannatech Science

To date, more than 52 patents have been issued worldwide for the technology relating to Mannatech’s Ambrotose® formulations.

Advanced Ambrotose® powder
Immune support polysaccharide supplement with Undaria pinnatifida.* Gluten-free. Suitable for vegetarians.

Ambrotose® Products: Technical Information for You and Your Doctor

About Mannatech’s Glyconutrient Sugars and Healthy Blood Glucose Levels


    

Ingredients

OpenAloe vera extract (inner leaf gel powder)

Aloe vera extract (inner leaf gel powder)

 Aloe vera extract inner leaf gel powder includes Manapol®, a polysaccharide found in aloe vera gel. A unique ingredient exclusive to Mannatech, Incorporated, Manapol is extracted from fresh, washed and filtered gel by a specialized extraction method that yields insoluble fibers and stabilized, high molecular weight (MW) soluble fibers rich in long-chain mannose sugars—beta-(1-4)-acetylated polymannans. Many attribute the benefits of topically and orally-applied aloe vera gel to its polymannan content. The MW of over 20% of Manapol is >800,000. It also contains the monosaccharide sugars glucuronic acid, glucose, galacturonic acid, xylose, galactose, glucosamine, fucose, rhamnose and arabinose, and small amounts of protein, calcium, potassium and sulfate (1),(2),(3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  Ambrotose®complex powder
   •  NutriVerus™ powder

References

References

1. Luta G, McAnalley B. Aloe vera: chemical composition and methods used to determine its presence in commercial products. GlycoScience & Nutrition 2005;6:1-12.

2. Duncan, C., Ramberg, J., and Sinnott, R. Striking differences in Aloe vera gel carbohydrate composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions following processing will not be addressed by dietary supplement GMPs. Poster Presentation at the 5th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 17-20, 2008, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.

3.  Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 22-25, 2009, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.

Last updated April, 2013

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OpenArabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)

Arabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood)

Arabinogalactans are a class of long, densely branched high-molecular weight polysaccharides extracted for commercial uses from the bark of the Eastern and Western Larch trees, Larix larcinia and Larix occidentalis. Their monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucose and mannose (1). Larch arabinogalactans are considered a good source of soluble dietary fiber. Arabinogalactans are common in many food plants, including corn, carrots, tomatoes, pears, wheat and red wine (2)

The amount of arabinogalactan absorbed through the intestine after an oral dose is unclear. Non-absorbed arabinogalactan is fermented by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (3),(4). Larch arabinogalactans are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR172.610).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Ambrotose® Complex capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex powder
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  EM•PACT®
   •  Manna-C™ capsules
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  Phyt-Aloe® capsules or powder
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

References

References

 

     1.    Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine's 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, San Diego, California.January 22-25, 2009. 2009.
     2.    Cui SW. Polysaccharide Gums from Agricultural Products: Processing, Structures & Functionality. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 2001.
     3.    Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.
     4.    Kelly GS. 'Larch arabinogalactan: clinical relevance of a novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide. Altern.Med Rev 1999;4:96-103.

Last updated March, 2013

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OpenCalcium

Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Over 99% of total body calcium is found in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle and the intracellular fluid. Calcium is used for muscle contraction, blood vessel constriction and relaxation, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and nervous system signaling. A constant level of calcium is needed to be maintained in the body in order for these processes to function properly. The body gets the calcium it needs through food and by being extracted from bones. Calcium-rich foods include dairy products and dark, leafy greens. For dietary calcium, vitamin D is important and recommended for optimal calcium absorption through the intestine. Calcium extraction from bones occurs when dietary calcium is insufficient and can lead to weakened bone structure (1).
      Many individuals in the U.S. consume inadequate amounts of calcium. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1,000 mg calcium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  GlycoBears® tablets
   •  NutriVerus™ 
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

Last updated April, 2012

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OpenGhatti gum

Ghatti gum

 

Ghatti gum, a mixture of complex polysaccharides, comes from the bark of Anogeissus latifolia, a large tree native to India and Sri Lanka. Monosaccharide constituents include arabinose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid. Ghatti gum is used in supplements, foods, drugs and cosmetics. It contains as much as 80% soluble dietary fiber (1).
 
Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon (2). Test tube studies have demonstrated the fermentation of ghatti gum by the beneficial human bacteria species Bifidobacterium (3),(4). Ghatti gum is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is permitted for use as a food (21CFR184.1333).

 This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Ambrotose AO® capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex powder
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  EM•PACT® sports drink
   •  Emprizone® gel
   •  FIRM with Ambrotose® cream
   •  Manna-C™ capsules
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  Phyt-Aloe® capsules or powder
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

References

References

1. Glicksman M. Gum Ghatti (Indian gum). In: Glicksman M, ed. Food Hydrocolloids. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1983:31-7.

2. Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.

3. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.

4. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.

Last updated November 2013

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OpenGlucosamine HCl (vegetarian)

Glucosamine HCl (vegetarian)

Glucosamine HCl is a salt of the amino monosaccharide, glucosamine. Glucosamine is naturally found in human cartilage and in some fungi and algae (1), (2). Commercially produced glucosamine is made from shellfish or grains such as corn or wheat. Supplemental glucosamine has been used for the past 25 years in Europe (3). In the U.S., it has gained popularity as a dietary supplement.
     The amount of absorption of orally administered glucosamine through the intestines is somewhat unclear. The fraction not absorbed and incorporated into cartilage is excreted, mainly in urine (2). Glucosamine that is not absorbed through the intestine may be utilized by colonic bacteria (4), (5). There appears to be minimal concern for side effects indicated with glucosamine supplementation. Clinical studies have consistently reported that glucosamine appears safe (6).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
 

References

References

1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., 2006.

2. Barclay TS, Tsourounis C, McCart GM. Glucosamine. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:574-9.

3. Russell AL. Alternative therapies and alternative medicine. J Rheumatol 1999;26:1417.

4. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.

5. Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.

6. Anderson JW, Nicolosi RJ, Borzelleca JF. Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy. Food Chem Toxicol 2005;43:187-201.

Last updated November, 2011

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OpenGum tragacanth

Gum tragacanth

Gum tragacanth comes from the stems and branches of the flowering plant Astragalus gummifer. The raw gum is made up of a mixture of two polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid (1). Gum tragacanth has been approved for use in pharmaceuticals in the U.S. since 1820 and in foods since 1925 (2). Most gums are believed to be largely degraded in the colon (3). Test tube studies have demonstrated that gum tragacanth can be digested by a number of bacteria that inhabit the human colon, including the beneficial Bifidobacteria species (4),(5). Gum tragacanth is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is commonly added to foods (21CFR184.1351).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Ambrotose AO® capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex powder
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  EM•PACT® sports drink
   •  Emprizone® gel
   •  FIRM with Ambrotose® cream
   •  Manna-C™ capsules
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  Phyt-Aloe® capsules or powder
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

References

References

1. Anderson DM, Howlett JF, McNab CG. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.). Food Addit Contam 1985;2:231-5.

2.  Anderson DM. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives. Food Addit Contam 1989;6:1-12.

3.  Hill MJ. Bacterial fermentation of complex carbohydrate in the human colon. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:353-8.

4.  Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210.

5.  Salyers AA, West SE, Vercellotti JR, Wilkins TD. Fermentation of mucins and plant polysaccharides by anaerobic bacteria from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 1977;34:529-33.

Last updated November 2013

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OpenRice starch

Rice starch

Rice starch is a polysaccharide obtained from rice, Oryza sativa.  Worldwide, natural starch is an important source of energy. Humans and other animals have enzymes that are able to digest starch into its glucose components, so it can be easily digested. Rice starch is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  Ambrotose® Complex powder
 

References

References

1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2009

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OpenVitamin A (as beta-carotene from Blakeslea trispora fungus)

Vitamin A (as beta-carotene from Blakeslea trispora fungus)

Vitamin A, also called retinol, is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for humans. Adequate intake is important for normal vision and immune function. Dietary vitamin A can be provided as both preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids that are precursors to vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A is abundant in animal-derived foods like liver, kidney, eggs, and dairy products. Carotenoids, like beta-carotene, are found in darkly colored fruits and vegetables. Preformed vitamin A is efficiently absorbed through the intestines, while carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact or cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. The proportion of beta-carotene converted to vitamin A decreases as beta-carotene intake increases, limiting the risk of vitamin A toxicity (1).

     Beta-carotene, also called provitamin A, is a member of a group of plant-produced compounds called carotenoids, which serve as precursors to vitamin A. Beta-carotene is a potent antioxidant. The ultimate source of all vitamin A is from the carotenes, and beta-carotene has the highest vitamin A activity (2). Beta-carotene is particularly abundant in orange vegetables and fruit, and may be directly added to foods as a vitamin supplement (3).
     Carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact, or be cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. There is no Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for beta-carotene or other provitamin A carotenoids. However, dietary provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). The RDA for RAEs is 900 µg/day for men and 700 µg/day for women (1). Beta-carotene supplementation in humans is likely safe over long periods of time.

Blakeslea trispora is a fungus that can be used as a source of carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, gamma-carotene and lycopene, for dietary supplements (4),(5).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  Ambrotose® complex capsules
   •  Ambrotose® complex powder
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Food and Drugs. Title 21, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. 1999. 21CFR. Ref Type: Bill/Resolution

4. Olempska-Beer Z. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Lycopene from Blakeslea trispora Chemical and Technical Assessment. 2006. College Park, Maryland.

5. Jeong J, Lee I, Kim S, Park Y. Stimulation of beta-carotene synthesis by hydrogen peroxide in Blakeslea trispora. Biotechnology Letters 1999;21:683–6.

May, 2013

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OpenWakame (Undaria pinnatifida) algae extract

Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) algae extract

 

Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) is a type of edible brown algae that has been consumed for thousands of years, particularly in Asia (1). In Japanese and other Asian cultures, the ingestion of brown seaweed in the diet averages up to 3 g per day (1). It is used in condiments and soup bases or fresh in salads, rolls or stews for its nutritional content, flavor and texture. Undaria is also used in Chinese and Ayurvedic (Indian) traditional medicine (2). Undaria pinnatifida is rich in fucoidans, sulfated polysaccharides that contain large amounts of fucose and other monosaccharides, including galactose, mannose and glucose (3),(4). In addition to being largely made up of soluble carbohydrates and edible protein, Undaria also contains vitamins A, C and E; B vitamins and some trace elements (such as iodine) (5).
 
Undaria is partially digested in the human gut (6), and test tube studies have demonstrated that fibers from brown algae can be fermented by human fecal bacteria (7). The serum uptake of fucoidans has not been assessed to date. Undaria pinnatifida has been consumed as a food and traditional medicine in Asia for thousands of years, indicating a safe precedence for human consumption (1), (8).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
 

References

References

 

           1. Fitton JH. Brown marine algae: A survey of therapeutic potentials. Alt Comp Therapy 2003;9:29-33.
            2. Mori H, Kamei H, Nishide E, Nisizawa K. Sugar constituents of some suplhated polysaccharides from the sporophylls of wakame and their biological activities. In: Hoppe HA, Levring T, eds. Marine Algae in Pharmaceutical Science. New York & Berlin: Walter de Gruyter 1982:109-22.
            3. Koo J-G. Structural characterization of purified fucoidan from Laminaria religiosa, sporophylls of Undaria pinnatifida, Hizikia fusirome and Sagassum fulvellum in Korea. J.Korean Fish.Soc. 1997;30:128-31.
            4. Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine's 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, San Diego, California.January 22-25, 2009.
            5. Simpson BB, Ogorzaly MC. Economic Botany: Plants in Our World. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
            6. Yamada Y, Miyoshi T, Tanada S, Imaki M. Digestibility and energy availability of wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) seaweed in Japanese. Jap J Hygiene 1991;46.
            7. Michel C, Lahaye M, Bonnet C, Mabeau S, Barry JL. In vitro fermentation by human faecal bacteria of total and purified dietary fibres from brown seaweeds. Br J Nutr 1996;75:263-80.
            8. Aaronson S. Algae. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 2000:231-49.

Last updated April, 2012

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    NSF- Certified according to the NSF/ANSI 173 Dietary Supplement Standard—the only American National Standard for dietary supplements. This certification ensures that this product contains only the ingredients indicated on the label and is free of impurities, and that Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) were used in the manufacturing facility.
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* This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.