Mannatech Science

To date, more than 3 patents have been issued for the technology related to Mannatech’s PHYTOMATRIX® formulation.

PhytoMatrix® caplets
Multivitamin/Mineral/Phytochemical supplement. Naturally gluten-free. Suitable for vegetarians.


    

Ingredients

OpenAloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)

Aloe vera (inner leaf gel powder)

Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder  is the powder obtained from the freeze-dried gel from the leaves of the aloe vera plant, Aloe barbadensis.

For centuries, the plant aloe vera has been used by cultures for its beneficial effects on human health (1). Today aloe vera gel continues to be used in supplements, foods, beverages, and cosmetics. Aloe leaves consist of two major parts, the outer leaf epidermis and the inner leaf gel, which are very different in their chemical composition and properties. Aloe gel is obtained from the inner portion of the leaves. Aloe gel is rich in nutrients and contains an abundant supply of glycoproteins and mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Monosaccharide constituents include glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, fucose, glucosamine, fructose, rhamnose and xylose (2).

Much of the health benefits observed by the use of aloe vera gel may be attributed to its high molecular weight polysaccharides. Before a process was developed to stabilize aloe vera gel or extracts, fresh preparations were regarded as being required for any therapeutic efficacy (3). It has now been shown that careful drying of aloe vera gel can retain the polysaccharide content important for producing many of its health benefits (4).

 

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® capsules
   •  Advanced Ambrotose® powder
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Ambrotose AO® capsules
   •  Ambrotose® Complex capsules
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  EM•PACT® sports drink
   •  MannaBears™ supplement
   •  Manna-C™ capsules
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  Phyt-Aloe® capsules or powder
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

 

 

References

References

1.  The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., Inc., 1996.

2.  Duncan, C., Ramberg, J., and Sinnott, R. Striking differences in Aloe vera gel carbohydrate composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions following processing will not be addressed by dietary supplement GMPs. Poster Presentation at the 5th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, January 17-20, 2008, Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine, San Diego, California.

3.  Gjerstad G, Riner TD. Current status of aloe as a cure-all. Am J Pharm Sci Support Public Health 1968;140:58-64.

4.  Ni Y, Turner D, Yates KM, Tizard I. Isolation and characterization of structural components of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:1745-55.

Last updated November 2013

Print This Ingredient
OpenBiotin (from baker’s yeast)

Biotin (from baker’s yeast)

Biotin is a water-soluble B complex vitamin required for many reactions involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins (1). Biotin is found in many foods such as liver, egg yolk, green vegetables and whole grains.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 300 μg biotin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenBoron (from mustard sprout)

Boron (from mustard sprout)

Boron is a trace mineral naturally occurring in many foods, but it is particularly abundant in peanut butter, wine, raisins and nuts. The U.S. FDA has not established a DV for boron, but growing evidence suggests it is essential to human beings. In the U.S., adult men consume a mean of 1.17 mg/day and women consume 0.96 mg/day. Vegetarian adults consume slightly more (1).
     Up to 18 mg/day of boron appears to be safe for adults even if taken for long periods of time. There is no evidence that it is either carcinogenic or mutagenic. No adverse effects have been observed in women taking boron supplements (2).
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (3). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (4).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Rainey CJ, Nyquist LA, Christensen RE, Strong PL, Culver BD, Coughlin JR. Daily boron intake from the American diet. J Am Diet.Assoc. 1999;99:335-40.

2. PDR Health Database. www.pdrhealth.com. 2007.

3. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

4. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenBroccoli concentrate (floret) standardized to 6% glucosinolates, sulforaphane

Broccoli concentrate (floret) standardized to 6% glucosinolates, sulforaphane

Broccoli. The leaves and stem of broccoli, Brassica oleracea italica, are an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A and vitamin C. Broccoli also contains the additional nutrients protein, fiber, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid and biotin, as well as bioflavonoids (1). Many of these nutrients have antioxidant properties.
     Recent attention has been devoted to an additional component of cruciferous vegetables, namely, the glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are biologically inactive, sulfur-containing compounds that can be broken down in the human gastrointestinal tract. Isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane, are the biologically active metabolites of glucosinolates that can then be absorbed through the intestine (2). Broccoli has a high glucosinolate content compared to other cruciferous vegetables, and broccoli extracts have a particularly high concentration of sulforaphane (3), (4).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

2. Lund E. Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 2003;73:135-43.

3. Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho CG, Posner GH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S A 1992;89:2399-403.

4. McNaughton SA, Marks GC. Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables. Br J Nutr 2003;90:687-97.

Last updated March 2014

Print This Ingredient
OpenCalcium (from red algae (Lithothamnium spp.))

Calcium (from red algae (Lithothamnium spp.))

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Over 99% of total body calcium is found in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle and the intracellular fluid. Calcium is used for muscle contraction, blood vessel constriction and relaxation, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and nervous system signaling. A constant level of calcium is needed to be maintained in the body in order for these processes to function properly. The body gets the calcium it needs through food and by being extracted from bones. Calcium-rich foods include dairy products and dark, leafy greens. For dietary calcium, vitamin D is important and recommended for optimal calcium absorption through the intestine. Calcium extraction from bones occurs when dietary calcium is insufficient and can lead to weakened bone structure (1).
     Many individuals in the U.S. consume inadequate amounts of calcium. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1,000 mg calcium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Red algae (Lithothamnium spp.) are species of algae that are rich in the essential minerals calcium and magnesium and contain a number of trace minerals including manganese, selenium and zinc (2). Lithothamnium species belong to the family of coralline algae, Corallinaceae. They are harvested off the coasts of Britain and France to be used as a source of calcium (calcium carbonate) and magnesium (magnesium carbonate) in dietary supplements.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

2. Frestedt JL, Walsh M, Kuskowski MA, Zenk JL. Nutr J 2008;7:9.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenChromium (from mustard sprout)

Chromium (from mustard sprout)

Chromium is an essential trace element that plays an important role in normal blood sugar regulation. Sources of dietary chromium include high-bran cereals, meats, poultry, fish and some beers and red wines. Only small amounts (<2.5%) of dietary chromium are absorbed through the intestine (1).
     No adverse effects have been associated with chromium intake from food or supplements (1). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 120 μg chromium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2012

Print This Ingredient
OpenCopper (from mustard sprout)

Copper (from mustard sprout)

Copper is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and is present in small amounts in drinking water. Contributors of dietary copper include organ meats, seafood, nuts, wheat bran cereals and whole grain products. Copper is a component of multiple enzymes and is involved in numerous biochemical reactions in human cells, such as the reduction of molecular oxygen, the regulation of gene expression, mitochondrial function/cellular metabolism and the absorption, storage and metabolism of iron (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg copper for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     The risk of adverse effects resulting from excess intake of copper from food, water and supplements appears to be very low in adults, but may be more likely in young children. Excess copper intake can lead to gastrointestinal disturbances and possible liver damage (1).
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenCranberry juice concentrate (fruit) standardized to 35% organic acids

Cranberry juice concentrate (fruit) standardized to 35% organic acids

Cranberry juice concentrate. The cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, grows wild in eastern North America and is commonly associated with the holiday of Thanksgiving. Cranberries are consumed as whole berries (fresh or frozen) or as the primary ingredients in cranberry juice and cranberry sauce. Fresh cranberries are rich in fructose and the acids citric, quinic and benzoic (1). They are fairly low in calories and are also a source of fiber, bioflavonoids, potassium and vitamin C (2). When compared with a variety of other common fruits, cranberries contain the largest amount of phenolic antioxidants (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoBurst® Nutritional Chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: Intercept, Ltd, 1999.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
 
3. Vinson JA, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P. Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:5315-21.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenFolic acid (from baker’s yeast)

Folic acid (from baker’s yeast)

Folate is a water-soluble B complex vitamin that is used in the human body for synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids. Food sources of folate include dark green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits and juices, legumes and liver.
      Folate is well tolerated in amounts found in fortified foods and supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 μg folate for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).

 

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

Last updated December, 2012

Print This Ingredient
OpenGrape pomace extract standardized to 50% polyphenols

Grape pomace extract standardized to 50% polyphenols

Grape pomace extract. Grapes, the fruit of the grape vine Vitis vinifera, are the leading fruit crop in the world. Although they are popular as a fresh fruit, grapes are also used to make juices, jams, jelly, raisins and wine (1).  Grape pomace is defined as the pulp, peel, seeds and stalks that remain after oil, water or other liquids have been pressed out. Many health benefits provided by grapes and their products are attributed to their abundant polyphenols. The polyphenols in grapes include resveratrol and flavonoids: quercetin (and its glycoside, rutin), kaempferol, anthocyanins, tannins and myricetin. These compounds are present in the skins, seeds and stems of the grape and many demonstrate potent antioxidant activity (2). Grapes also contain plant acids, sugars, amino acids, minerals and small amounts of vitamins C and E (3), (4).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers grape pomace extract to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as an antioxidant in beverages and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No.125). The U.S. FDA has also assigned GRAS status to grape skin extracts for use in the coloring of drinks and other foods (21CFR73.170).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

2. Torres JL, Varela B, Garcia MT et al. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:7548-55.

3. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997;11:287-313.

4. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenIodine (from mustard sprout)

Iodine (from mustard sprout)

Iodine is an essential element required by humans for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Therefore, normal functioning of the thyroid gland, a gland actively involved in the regulation of metabolism, requires iodine. Humans obtain iodine from their diets. Iodine deficiency is rare in industrialized countries such as the United States due to the enrichment of table salt with iodine. Under normal conditions, the absorption of dietary iodine is greater than 90 percent (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 150 μg iodine for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2012

Print This Ingredient
OpenIron (from mustard sprout)

Iron (from mustard sprout)

Iron is an essential mineral that primarily functions in the movement of oxygen from the environment to the tissues. There are two forms of dietary iron: heme and non-heme. Sources of heme iron include meat, fish and poultry. Sources of non-heme iron include beans, lentils, flours, cereals and grains. Iron levels are tightly regulated in the human body, mainly by controlling the amount of iron absorbed from food. The proportion of dietary iron absorbed is determined by the iron requirement of the individual; more iron present in the body means less iron is absorbed through the intestine. Heme iron is more easily absorbed than non-heme iron (1).
     The risk of adverse effects from food sources of iron is low. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 18 mg iron for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenMagnesium (from red algae (Lithothamnium spp.))

Magnesium (from red algae (Lithothamnium spp.))

Magnesium is an essential mineral nutrient for human life. Magnesium ions are essential to all living cells, but nearly 50% is found within the bones where they play a major role in bone and mineral homeostasis. Magnesium is also important for many cellular reactions such as energy generation, cell membrane stabilization and protein activation. Food sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, meat, starches and milk. Intestinal absorption of dietary magnesium in a typical diet is approximately 50 percent (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 mg magnesium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Magnesium, when ingested as a naturally occurring substance in foods, has not been demonstrated to exert any adverse effects. However, adverse effects, such as mild gastrointestinal disturbances, have been observed with excess magnesium intake from nonfood sources (1).
     Red algae (Lithothamnium spp.) are species of algae that are rich in the essential minerals calcium and magnesium and contain a number of trace minerals including manganese, selenium and zinc (2). Lithothamnium species belong to the family of coralline algae, Corallinaceae. They are harvested off the coasts of Britain and France to be used as a source of calcium (calcium carbonate) and magnesium (magnesium carbonate) in dietary supplements.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

2. Frestedt JL, Walsh M, Kuskowski MA, Zenk JL. Nutr J 2008;7:9.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenManganese (from mustard sprout)

Manganese (from mustard sprout)

Manganese is an essential nutrient that activates a number of enzymes involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Dietary manganese can be found in grain products, vegetables and beverages such as tea. Only a small percentage of dietary manganese is absorbed through the intestine (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg manganese for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenMolybdenum (from mustard sprout)

Molybdenum (from mustard sprout)

Molybdenum is an essential trace element that functions as a cofactor for a number of enzymes in the body, some of which are involved in the metabolism of amino acids and nucleotides. The molybdenum content of plant foods varies depending upon the soil content in which they are grown. Legumes, grain products and nuts are major contributors of molybdenum to the diet. Dietary molybdenum is efficiently absorbed through the intestine (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 75 μg molybdenum for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenNiacin (from baker’s yeast)

Niacin (from baker’s yeast)

Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B3 or nicotinamide. Niacin is a precursor to the most central electron carrier substances in living cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), thus functioning in many metabolic pathways (1). Foods that contain niacin include beans, liver, fish, poultry and cereal grains.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 20 mg niacin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenPantothenic acid (from baker’s yeast)

Pantothenic acid (from baker’s yeast)

Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is an essential B complex vitamin that is a component of coenzyme A (CoA), a molecule that is involved in the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates and proteins (1). Rich food sources of pantothenic acid include chicken, beef, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products, liver, kidney, egg yolk, broccoli and whole grains. In commercial supplement products, pantothenic acid is available as calcium or sodium D-pantothenate or as pantothenol. Pantothenic acid is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 10 mg pantothenic acid for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenRiboflavin (from baker’s yeast)

Riboflavin (from baker’s yeast)

Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B2, which is involved in numerous metabolic processes and energy production in the body (1).Good dietary sources of riboflavin are milk, eggs, enriched cereals/grains, meats, liver and green vegetables. Riboflavin is commonly found in multivitamin and vitamin B complex preparations.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.7 mg riboflavin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     The limited capacity of humans to absorb orally administered riboflavin limits its potential for harm. No adverse effects associated with riboflavin consumption from food or supplements have been reported (1).
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenRutin (from Japanese sophora bud)

Rutin (from Japanese sophora bud)

Rutin is a flavonol glycoside comprised of the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose. Rutin is found in many foods, especially the buckwheat plant, black tea, apple peels, onions and citrus fruits (1).
     The flower buds of the Japanese sophora or pagoda tree, Sophora japonica, are a rich source of the bioflavonoid rutin. The buds have been used for centuries in Chinese cultures, and the tree is often used in bonsai horticulture (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. PDR Health Database. www.pdrhealth.com. 2007.

2. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenSelenium (from mustard sprout)

Selenium (from mustard sprout)

Selenium is a trace mineral found in soil, water and some foods. The selenium content of food varies depending on the selenium content of the soil where the animal was raised or the plant was grown. Selenium is an essential element in several metabolic pathways and functions largely through its association with proteins, known as selenoproteins. Known biological functions of selenium include defense against oxidative stress and regulation of thyroid hormone action. Absorption of selenium is efficient with more than 90 percent of selenomethionine, the major dietary form of the element, being absorbed through the intestine (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 70 μg selenium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2012

Print This Ingredient
OpenSodium

Sodium

Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in humans. Sodium is necessary for regulating the water content of blood and other bodily fluids and is transported across cell membranes to regulate the transmission of nerve impulses and heart activity. Salt (sodium chloride) is the primary form of sodium in the diet. Other forms of sodium found in food include monosodium glutamate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite, sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate. The amount of dietary sodium that is absorbed through the intestine is approximately 98% (1).
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Daily Reference Value (DRV) of 2,400 mg sodium for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). DRVs are a set of dietary references for energy-producing nutrients, cholesterol, sodium and potassium that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. DRVs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     It is well-recognized that the current intake of sodium for most individuals in the United States exceeds recommended doses. The most common adverse effect seen with high sodium intake is an increase in blood pressure (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

Last updated April, 2012

Print This Ingredient
OpenThiamin (from baker’s yeast)

Thiamin (from baker’s yeast)

Thiamin is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, also known as vitamin B1. It functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids (1). Dietary sources of thiamin include beef, pork, breads, seeds and whole grain cereals. Dietary thiamin is minimally absorbed through the intestine.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.5 mg thiamin for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenVanadium (from mustard sprout)

Vanadium (from mustard sprout)

Vanadium is a trace element found in foods such as mushrooms, shellfish, black pepper, parsley, grains and grain products. The absorption of ingested vanadium is less than 5 percent (1).
     A biological role of vanadium in humans is unclear. Therefore, neither a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) nor a Daily Reference Value (DRV) has been set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenVitamin A (as mixed carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora fungus)

Vitamin A (as mixed carotenoids from Blakeslea trispora fungus)

Vitamin A, also called retinol, is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for humans. Adequate intake is important for normal vision and immune function. Dietary vitamin A can be provided as both preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids that are precursors to vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A is abundant in animal-derived foods like liver, kidney, eggs, and dairy products. Carotenoids, like beta-carotene, are found in darkly colored fruits and vegetables. Preformed vitamin A is efficiently absorbed through the intestines, while carotenoids may either be absorbed through the intestines intact or cleaved to form vitamin A prior to absorption. The proportion of beta-carotene converted to vitamin A decreases as beta-carotene intake increases, limiting the risk of vitamin A toxicity (1).
     Dietary preformed vitamin A and provitamin A carotenoids have vitamin A activity that can be expressed as retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) or international units (IU). In the U.S., 1 RAE is equal to 3.33 IU vitamin A. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 5,000 IUs vitamin A for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Blakeslea trispora is a fungus that can be used as a source of carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, gamma-carotene and lycopene, for dietary supplements (2), (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Olempska-Beer Z. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Lycopene from Blakeslea trispora Chemical and Technical Assessment. 2006. College Park, Maryland.

3. Jeong J, Lee I, Kim S, Park Y. Stimulation of beta-carotene synthesis by hydrogen peroxide in Blakeslea trispora. Biotechnology Letters 1999;21:683–6.

Last updated May, 2013

Print This Ingredient
OpenVitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin)

Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin)

Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is commonly found in a variety of animal foods such as fish, shellfish, meat and dairy products. Synthetic vitamin B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations and added to supplements and fortified foods such as cereals. An adequate supply of vitamin B12 is essential to maintain healthy nerve cell and red blood cell function, as well as for folate utilization. The average fractional absorption of vitamin B12 from food by healthy individuals is approximately 50 percent (1).
     No adverse effects have been associated with vitamin B12 intake from food or supplements in healthy individuals (1). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 6 μg vitamin B12 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Cyanocobalamin is the principal form of vitamin B12 for commercial use in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Once absorbed through the intestine, cyanocobalamin is converted to the active forms of vitamin B12 in the body.

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

Last updated March, 2013

Print This Ingredient
OpenVitamin B6 (from baker’s yeast)

Vitamin B6 (from baker’s yeast)

Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and the release of glucose from glycogen (1). Major sources of vitamin B6 include fortified, ready-to-eat cereals; mixed foods (including sandwiches) with meat, fish or poultry as the main ingredient; white potatoes and other starchy vegetables; and non-citrus fruits. Vitamin B6 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.
     Vitamin B6 is generally considered safe in adults and children when used appropriately at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg vitamin B6 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer’s yeast, is a yeast often used for baking or brewing. It is an excellent source of the essential B vitamins, including folic acid, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin and vitamin B6 (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Medicines. Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenVitamin C (from acerola fruit extract)

Vitamin C (from acerola fruit extract)

Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin found mainly in fruits and vegetables, particularly in citrus fruits such as oranges. Vitamin C functions as a reducing agent and thereby demonstrates potent antioxidant activity. Vitamin C deficiency can lead to the disease scurvy, which involves the deterioration of elastic tissue, demonstrating the important role of ascorbic acid in the synthesis of connective tissues such as collagen in bones (1). Dietary vitamin C is efficiently absorbed through the intestine.
     Vitamin C is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR182.8013). The U.S. FDA has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 60 mgs vitamin C for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Acerola extract is obtained from the fruit of the small tree, Malpighia glabra or Malpighia punicifolia. Acerola is grown in tropical regions of the Americas. The fruit is known for being one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C and also contains vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and polyphenols, such as anthocyanins. Acerola fruit extract acts as an antioxidant, likely due to the presence of some of these nutrients (2). Most acerola fruit is processed into fruit products, such as jams, jellies and juices, or added to dietary supplements as a source of vitamin C (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Manna-C™ capsules
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Natural Standard Database. www.naturalstandard.com. 2009.

3. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenVitamin D (as plant source ergocalciferol)

Vitamin D (as plant source ergocalciferol)

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in two physiologically relevant forms, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Ergocalciferol is synthesized by plants, while cholecalciferol is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Some foods may also be fortified with vitamin D, such as milk and breakfast cereals. Current average daily intakes of vitamin D for Americans are well below suggested adequate intakes (1), and much of the world’s population is deficient in this important vitamin (2).
    The main function of vitamin D is to regulate serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals. By influencing the absorption of calcium, vitamin D helps to form and maintain strong bones and teeth (3),(4). Vitamin D supplementation helps prevent falls and maintain physical performance in the elderly (4),(5). Adequate vitamin D intake may also be important for maintaining immune health (6),(7), nervous system health (8), may help improve mood during the winter months (9),(10) and improve overall quality of life (11).
    Vitamin D is generally well tolerated at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 international units (IUs) vitamin D for adults and children 4 or more years of age. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (% DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
    According to the Endocrine Society’s Vitamin D Clinical Practice Guidelines, published in June 2011, individuals who are at risk for vitamin D deficiencies should as their physician to have their blood tested for the vitamin D metabolite [25(OH)D]. For individuals with blood 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/L, higher amounts of vitamin D intake are suitable: children ages 1–18 may need 600–1,000 IU daily,adults >18 age may need 1,500–2,000 IU vitamin D daily (12).

 Many Americans Would Benefit from Intake of Supplemental Vitamin D Higher than Current RDAs


This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 2010.

2. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos.Int 2009;20:1807-20.

3. Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46:621-8..

4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. 2010.

5. Annweiler C, Montero-Odasso M, Schott AM, Berrut G, Fantino B, Beauchet O. Fall prevention and vitamin D in the elderly: an overview of the key role of the non-bone effects. J Neuroeng.Rehabil. 2010;7:50.

6. van Etten E, Mathieu C. Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: basic concepts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2005;97:93-101.

7. Maggini S, Wintergerst ES, Beveridge S, Hornig DH. Selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses. Br J Nutr 2007;98 Suppl 1:S29-S35. .

8. McCann JC, Ames BN. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J 2008;22:982-1001.

9. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence? Nutr Rev 2009;67:481-92. 10. .

10. Lansdowne AT, Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;135:319-23. .

11. Norman AW, Bouillon R. Vitamin D nutritional policy needs a vision for the future. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.) 2010;235:1034-45.

12. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin d deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:1911-30.

Last updated April, 2012

Print This Ingredient
OpenVitamin E (as mixed tocopherols from vegetable oil extract (soy, corn, safflower))

Vitamin E (as mixed tocopherols from vegetable oil extract (soy, corn, safflower))

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. In foods, vitamin E exists primarily as mixed tocopherols. Foods that contain vitamin E include: eggs, fortified cereals, fruit, green leafy vegetables, meat, nuts/nut oils, poultry, vegetable oils and whole grains. Vitamin E supplements are available in natural or synthetic forms. While the precise rate of vitamin E absorption is not known with certainty, it is believed to be variable and low. Reported rates of absorption of vitamin E following intake with food have varied from as high as 51%-86% to as low as 21%-29% (1). All forms of vitamin E, including all of the tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues, are absorbed through the intestine in a similar manner.
     The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 30 international units (IUs) vitamin E for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Tocopherols, along with tocotrienols, are organic compounds collectively known as vitamin E. Natural tocopherols exist as a mixture of d-alpha-, d-beta-, d-gamma- and d-delta-isoforms, each having antioxidant activities (2). Tocopherols are present in many foods, such as vegetable oils, nuts and grains. They are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods (21CFR182.3890) (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

2. Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Jones LS, Shigeri Y. Chemical reactivities and physical effects in comparison between tocopherols and tocotrienols: physiological significance and prospects as antioxidants. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007;104:439-45.

3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenZinc (from mustard sprout)

Zinc (from mustard sprout)

Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for the functioning of approximately 100 different enzymes in the body. It plays a vital role in many biological processes, such as the maintenance of protein structure, the regulation of gene expression and the metabolism of hormones. Zinc is abundant in red meats, certain seafood and whole grains, and many breakfast cereals are fortified with zinc. The proportion of dietary zinc absorbed is determined by the amount of zinc already present in the body, with higher absorption occurring when zinc status is low (1).
     Zinc is regarded as relatively safe and generally well tolerated when taken at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 15 mg zinc for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.
     Mustard sprout. The greens and seeds of the Indian, or brown mustard plant, Brassica juncea, have been cultivated in Asia and Europe for thousands of years (2). Growing Indian mustard sprouts in mineral-enriched soil can increase the amount of minerals concentrated in the plant’s tissue. The sprouts can then be used in dietary supplements as sources of essential and trace minerals such as chromium, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoBurst® nutritional chews
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

2. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.

3. Elless M, Blaylock M, Huang J. Plants as a natural source of concentrated mineral nutritional supplements. Food Chem 2000;71:181-8.

Last updated April, 2009

Print This Ingredient

Formulation Ingredients

OpenCorn starch

Corn starch

Corn starch is a polysaccharide obtained from the grains of corn. Worldwide, natural starch is an important source of energy. Humans and other animals have enzymes that are able to digest starch into its glucose components, so it can be easily digested. Starch is widely used as an excipient to control the consistency of pharmaceutical formulations, particularly oral tablets (1). Corn starch is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenCroscarmellose sodium

Croscarmellose sodium

Croscarmellose sodium, the sodium salt of a cellulose, is added to capsules, tablets and granules to help them disintegrate following ingestion. Croscarmellose sodium is generally regarded as an essentially nontoxic material. Consumption of large quantities may have a laxative effect, although the quantities used in capsules or tablets are unlikely to cause this problem (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
   •  PLUS™ caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenDextrin

Dextrin

Dextrin is any one of a number of polysaccharides produced from the hydrolysis of starch. Its monosaccharide constituent is glucose. Dextrin is used as an excipient to control the consistency of foods and pharmaceutical formulations and is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material (1). Dextrin is included in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products (2). It is also an approved food additive by the U.S. FDA (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated January, 2011

Print This Ingredient
OpenDextrose monohydrate

Dextrose monohydrate

Dextrose monohydrate, another name for D-glucose, is a monosaccharide sugar found in plants, usually produced by the hydrolysis of corn starch. As it is a form of glucose, it is rapidly absorbed through the intestine. Dextrose is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenDicalcium phosphate

Dicalcium phosphate

Dicalcium phosphate (calcium phosphate, dibasic) is a white, odorless, tasteless powder used both as an excipient and as a source of calcium in dietary supplements. It is widely used in oral pharmaceutical products, food products and toothpastes and is generally regarded as a relatively nontoxic and nonirritant material (1). Calcium phosphate, dibasic is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  GlycoSlim® chocolate meal replacement
   •  GlycoSlim® vanilla meal replacement
   •  NutriVerus™ powder
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated April, 2013

Print This Ingredient
OpenEthyl cellulose

Ethyl cellulose

Ethyl cellulose is an organic compound related to cellulose. As an excipient, it is used as a filler and a binder. Ethyl cellulose is approved for use as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenGum acacia

Gum acacia

Gum acacia, also known as gum arabic, is the gum that exudes from the acacia tree, Acacia senegal or Acacia seyal. Gum acacia is a water-soluble dietary fiber used primarily to control the consistency of food and beverages. Monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose (1). Gum acacia is included in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inactive Ingredients Guide as safe to use in the amounts present in our products (2). It is also an approved food additive by the U.S. FDA (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  GI-ProBalance™ slimsticks
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Whistler RL, BeMiller JN. Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists. St. Paul, Minn.: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 1999.

2. FDA Inactive Ingredients Guide.. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/iig/index.cfm . 2007.

3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2011

Print This Ingredient
OpenMagnesium stearate

Magnesium stearate

Magnesium stearate, a salt of stearic acid, is widely used in cosmetics, foods, and capsules as a lubricating agent. In dietary supplements it may contain a mixture of magnesium salts of different fatty acids. 
     Magnesium stearate is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1440) and is generally regarded as being nontoxic following oral administration. Oral consumption of large quantities may produce a laxative effect or cause mucosal irritation (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  BounceBack® capsules
   •  CardioBALANCE® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Gurnee, IL: Pharmaceutical Press, 2006.

Last updated January 2014

Print This Ingredient
OpenMaltodextrin

Maltodextrin

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide produced from starch. Like starch, maltodextrin is easily digestible and absorbed through the intestine. As an excipient, maltodextrin is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material (1). Maltodextrin is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. FDA for use as a direct food substance (21CFR184.1444).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  GI-ProBalance™ slimsticks
   •  GlycoSlim® chocolate meal replacement
   •  GlycoSlim® vanilla meal replacement
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1.  Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

Last updated July, 2013

Print This Ingredient
OpenMicrocrystalline cellulose

Microcrystalline cellulose

Microcrystalline cellulose (MC) is a purified plant fiber that is widely used in food products and in dietary supplement tablets to: 1) bind ingredients together, or 2) help the tablet disintegrate properly. 
     Following ingestion, MC is not absorbed by the human body. Because it is not absorbed, it has little potential for toxicity. Consumption of large quantities of cellulose may have a laxative effect, but this is unlikely to be a problem for individuals consuming the small amounts included in dietary supplement tablets (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  BounceBack® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
   •  PLUS™ caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenModified starch

Modified starch

Modified starch is prepared by treating starch, causing the starch to be partially degraded. Worldwide, natural starch is an important source of energy. Humans and other animals have enzymes that are able to digest starch into its glucose components, so it can be easily digested. Starch is widely used as an excipient to control the consistency of pharmaceutical formulations, particularly oral tablets (1). Modified starch is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

2. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient
OpenSilicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is added to capsule and tablet formulations to reduce clumping (1). Silica is found in many foods, particularly whole grains (oats and barley), sugar beets, sugar cane, soybeans, turnips, green beans (2). The average intake of silica in adults is 14-21 mg/day (3). The bioavailability of silicate additives is low (4). Silica that occurs in food and water has not been shown to cause any adverse effects (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  Ambrotose® Complex capsules
   •  BounceBack® capsules
   •  Catalyst™ caplets
   •  EM•PACT®
   •  GI-ProBalance™ slimsticks
   •  GlycoSlim® chocolate meal replacement
   •  GlycoSlim® vanilla meal replacement
   •  ImmunoSTART® tablets
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
   •  PLUS™ caplets
   •  SPORT™ capsules
 

References

References

1. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co., 2006.

2. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism. New York, New York: Elsevier, 1991.

3. Natural Medicines: Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2000.

4. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002.

Last updated July, 2013

Print This Ingredient
OpenSodium carboxymethylcellulose

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is an organic compound related to cellulose. It is used in oral formulations and food products to increase thickness and improve consistency (1). It is poorly absorbed and its safe use by humans has been well established (2). Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (3).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
   •  PLUS™ caplets
 

References

References

1. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. Washington, DC: Pharmaceutical Press and American Pharmacists Assn, 2006.

2. Bar, A., Til, H.P., Timonen, M. Subchronic oral toxicity study with regular and enzymatically depolymerized sodium carboxymethylcellulose in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 1995; 33(11): 909-17.

3. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated May, 2012

Print This Ingredient
OpenSoy lecithin

Soy lecithin

Soy lecithin is a combination of naturally occurring phospholipids extracted during the processing of soybean oil. It consists of three types of phospholipids- phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphotidylinositol. Soy lecithin is used commercially in substances as a natural way to stabilize liquid mixtures. Lecithin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for human consumption with the status generally recognized as safe (GRAS) (21CFR184.1400).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  AmbroStart® drink mix
   •  EM•PACT® sports drink
   •  MannaCLEANSE™ caplets
   •  Optimal Support Packets
   •  OsoLean® powder
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

   

Last updated November 2013

Print This Ingredient
OpenTricalcium phosphate

Tricalcium phosphate

Tricalcium phosphate is a white, odorless, tasteless powder widely used in vitamin and mineral preparations as a filler and a binder. It is also used in foods as an anti-caking agent. Tricalcium phosphate is an approved food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1).

This ingredient can be found in the following products:
   •  PhytoMatrix® caplets
 

References

References

1. Food and Drug Administration. EAFUS: A Food Additive Database. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/eafus.html. 10-17-2008. 12-4-2008.

Last updated March, 2009

Print This Ingredient

About Ingredients

Learn more about:

 
    NSF- Certified according to the NSF/ANSI 173 Dietary Supplement Standard—the only American National Standard for dietary supplements. This certification ensures that this product contains only the ingredients indicated on the label and is free of impurities, and that Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) were used in the manufacturing facility.
Read more about NSF

 

* This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Windows Server 2008 Produktnyckel Windows 7 Chave windows 8 winkel Office 2013 winkel Windows 8 Chave