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Ingredient:

Caffeine

Caffeine belongs to a group of compounds known as methylxanthines. Naturally occurring in more than 60 plants, including coffee (Coffea arabica) beans, cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans, guarana (Paullinia cupana) berries and tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves, caffeine is the most popular psychoactive chemical in the world 1.

After oral intake, 99% of caffeine is absorbed and then widely distributed throughout the tissues of the body. It does not accumulate and it is extensively metabolized in the liver. Caffeine and its metabolites are excreted in the urine. Its plasma half-life is variable, ranging roughly 3-10 hours. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, heart rate, and respiration, has mood-altering properties and functions as a mild diuretic 1.

In human clinical studies, intake of caffeine has been shown to improve cognitive performance 2 ,3 and alertness 4 ,5. Caffeine may also support healthy weight management, as it increases energy expenditure6 and thermogenesis7.

Caffeinated products are not intended or recommended for children and those sensitive to caffeine. Pregnant or nursing women, those with a medical condition, and those taking medication should consult a healthcare professional before use of caffeinated products.

This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:

References

  1. Natural Medicines Therapeutic Research. 2017. (https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/)
  2. Durlach PJ. The effects of a low dose of caffeine on cognitive performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;140:116-9.
  3. Johnson-Kozlow M, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E, Morton D. Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:842-50.
  4. Hindmarch I, Quinlan PT, Moore KL, Parkin C. The effects of black tea and other beverages on aspects of cognition and psychomotor performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;139:230-8.
  5. Kamimori GH, Penetar DM, Headley DB, Thorne DR, Otterstetter R, Belenky G. Effect of three caffeine doses on plasma catecholamines and alertness during prolonged wakefulness. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000;56:537-44.
  6. Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Dulloo AG et al. The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2011;12:e573-e581.
  7. Belza A, Toubro S, Astrup A. The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009;63:57-64.