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Ingredient:

Arabinogalactan (from Larix spp. wood) – AmbroGuard™

Arabinogalactans are a class of long, densely branched high-molecular weight polysaccharides extracted for commercial uses from the bark of the Eastern and Western Larch trees, Larix larcinia and Larix occidentalis. Their monosaccharide constituents include galactose, arabinose, glucose and mannose 1. Larch arabinogalactans are an excellent source of prebiotic soluble dietary fiber 2, 3. Numerous inedible and edible plants are rich sources of arabinogalactans 3. Arabinogalactans are found in some food plants, including corn, carrots, tomatoes, pears, wheat, radishes, and red wine 3, 4.

A human randomized double blind, placebo-controlled multi-dose trial concluded that “a dose of 1.5 grams/day of a proprietary larch arabinogalactan can significantly increase the IgG antibody response to tetanus vaccine compared to placebo” in healthy subjects 5. In fact, two human double blind, placebo-controlled trials indicate that higher doses of this arabinogalactan (4.5 grams) can enhance the response to a bacterial (pneumococcal) challenge 6, 7.

Larch arabinogalactans are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(www.FDA.gov) as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)(21CFR172.610).

This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:

References

  1. Luta G, Duncan C, Sinnott R. Chemical characterization of polysaccharide-rich ingredients from Aloe vera, Larix laricina and Larix occidentalis, and Undaria pinnatifida. Presented at the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine's 6th Annual Natural Supplements Conference, San Diego, California.January 22-25, 2009. 2009. Posted at Mannatech Science. https://mannatechscience.org/publications/
  2. Crociani F, Alessandrini A, Mucci MM, Biavati B. Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp. [Abstract]. Int J Food Microbiol 1994;24:199-210. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703014 or https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(94)90119-8
  3. Kelly GS. 'Larch arabinogalactan: clinical relevance of a novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide. Altern.Med Rev 1999;4:96-103. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10231609
  4. Cui SW. Polysaccharide Gums from Agricultural Products: Processing, Structures & Functionality. Lancaster, Pa.: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., 2001.
  5. Udani JK. Immunomodulatory effects of ResistAid: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose study. J Am Coll Nutr 2013;32:331-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24219376
  6. Udani JK, Singh BB, Barrett ML, Singh VJ. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers. Nutr J 2010;9:1-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20796315
  7. Riede L, Grube B, Gruenwald J. Larch arabinogalactan effects on reducing incidence of upper respiratory infections. Curr Med Res Opin 2013;29:251-8. https://doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2013.765837