Betaine (or trimethylglycine, which is a trimethyl derivative from the amino acid glycine), is found in foods like whole-grain breads, spinach, and beets 1. Dietary intake of betaine ranges from an average of 1 g/day to a high of 2.5 g/day (for a diet high in seafood and whole wheat) 1, 2. A limited number of clinical trials involving men taking 2-5 g/day for up to 15 days showed potential for modest performance improvements in cyclists and body builders 1, 3.
This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:
- EMPACT+® Performance drink mix dietary supplement - Slimsticks
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Dietary supplements for exercise and athletic performance. Updated 6/30/2017. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/ExerciseAndAthleticPerformance-HealthProfessional/
- Craig, S. A. (2004). Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr, 80(3), 539-549 .Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.3.539
- Cholewa JM, Guimaraes-Ferreira L, Zanchi NE. Effects of betaine on performance and body composition: are view of recent findings and potential mechanisms. [Abstract]. Amino Acids 2014;46:1785-93 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24760587?dopt=Abstract