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Ingredient:

Grape pomace extract standardized to 80% polyphenols

Grape pomace extract. Grapes, the fruit of the grape vine Vitis vinifera, are the leading fruit crop in the world. Although they are popular as a fresh fruit, grapes are also used to make juices, jams, jelly, raisins and wine 1.  Grape pomace is defined as the pulp, peel, seeds and stalks that remain after oil, water or other liquids have been pressed out. Many health benefits provided by grapes and their products are attributed to their abundant polyphenols. The polyphenols in grapes include resveratrol and flavonoids: quercetin (and its glycoside, rutin), kaempferol, anthocyanins, tannins and myricetin. These compounds are present in the skins, seeds and stems of the grape and many demonstrate potent antioxidant activity 2. Grapes also contain plant acids, sugars, amino acids, minerals and small amounts of vitamins C and E 3, 4.  As mentioned above, grape pomace contains appreciable amounts of polyphenolic compounds, including anthocyanins 5, 6 as well as catechins, flavoured glycosides, stilbenes, alcohols, and phenolic compounds 6, 7.  Anthocyanins have a bright, attractive color and are water soluble (dissolve in water) and may be considered as potential substitutes for synthetic colorants 8, 9.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been notified that industry considers grape pomace extract to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as an antioxidant in beverages and has not objected to its use for this purpose (GRN No.125). The U.S. FDA has also assigned GRAS status to grape skin extracts for use in the coloring of drinks and other foods (21CFR73.170).

This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:

References

  1. Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlande JE, Robson JRK. The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods and Nutrition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1995.
  2. Torres JL, Varela B, Garcia MT et al. Valorization of grape (Vitis vinifera) byproducts. Antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:7548-55. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025868i
  3. Soleas GJ, Diamandis EP, Goldberg DM. J Clin Lab Anal. 1997; 11(5):287-313.
  4. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
  5. Monrad JK, Srinivas K, Howard LR, King JW. Design and optimization of semicontinuous hot-cold extraction of polyphenols from grape pomace. J Agric Food Chem 2012;60(22), 5571-82. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf300569w
  6. Lu Y, Foo LY. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of polyphenols from apple pomace. Food Chem 2000;66:187-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00245-3
  7. Gupta P, Ray J, Aggarwal BK, Goyal P. Review Article. Food processing residue analysis and its functional components as related to human health: Recent developmentss. Austin J Nutri Food Sci 2015;3(3):1068
  8. Rockenbach II, Rodrigues E, Gonzaga LV, Caliari V, Genovese MI, et al. Phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in pomace from selected red grapes (Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L.) widely produced in Brazil. Food Chemistry 2011;127(1), 174-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.137
  9. Bordignon-Luiz MT, Gauche C, Gris EF, Falcao LD. [Abstract]. Colour stability of anthocyanins from Isabel grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) in model systems. Food Science and Technology 2007;40(4), 594-599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.02.022