Magnesium (as magnesium gluconate)
“Magnesium Gluconate is a magnesium salt of gluconate” 1. It is used as a mineral supplement and demonstrates the highest bioavailability of magnesium salts 1. Magnesium is found everywhere in the human body 1, 2, 3, is naturally present in numerous foods 1, 2, 3, added to food products, attainable as a dietary supplement, and exists in some medications (i.e. laxatives or antacids) 1, 3. About 30% to 40% of consumed dietary magnesium is absorbed by the body 3, 4, 5. Magnesium is essential in over 300 cellular reactions 2, 3, 6. The adult body contains about 25 g of magnesium, with 50% to 60% found in the bones, and the rest being mostly in soft tissues 2, 3, 6, 7. Magnesium is also important for many cellular reactions, such as energy generation, cell membrane stabilization and protein activation 2, 6. Food sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, meats, starches and milk 2, 3, 6.
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 400 mg magnesium (by 7/26/2020, this will increase to 420 mg 8) for adults and children 4 or more years of age 2, 3, 8, 9. RDIs, which are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals 3, 8, serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels 3, 8, 10. When ingested as a naturally occurring substance in foods, magnesium has not been demonstrated to exert any adverse effects. However, mild gastrointestinal disturbances have been observed with excess magnesium intake from nonfood sources 2, 3.
This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:
- EMPACT+® Performance drink mix dietary supplement - Slimsticks
- U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). National Institutes of Health (NIH). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Compound PubChem Open Chemistry database. Compound Summary for CID 71587201. Magnesium Gluconate [EP] https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/71587201
- Food and Nutrition Board (FNB). Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. (1997). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. https://doi.org/10.17226/5776 (6. Magnesium) https://www.nap.edu/read/5776/chapter/8#p20003285ppp190
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Magnesium. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Updated 9/26/2018. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/
- Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD, eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare;2010:527-537.
- Fine KD, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, Fordtran JS. Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. J clin Invest 1991;88:396-502. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC295344/
- Natural Medicines database. Professional monograph. Product ID no. 998. Last reviewed 11/8/2018. Last updated 1/29/2019. Subscription required. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/food,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=998
- Volpe SL. Magnesiium. In: Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed. Ames, Iowa; John Wiley & Sons, 2012:459-474.
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Strengthening knowledge and understanding of dietary supplement. Health information. Daily Values (DVs). https://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/dailyvalues.aspx
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). A food labeling guide: Guidance for industry. 1/2013 https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/UCM265446.pdf
- Dietary Supplement Label Database. National Institutes of Health (NIH). A joint effort of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). https://www.dsld.nlm.nih.gov/dsld/dailyvalue.jsp