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Ingredient:

Manganese (as manganese gluconate)

Manganese is an essential nutrient that activates a number of enzymes involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism 1, 2. Dietary manganese can be found in grain products, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts and beverages such as tea 1, 2, 3. Only a small percentage of dietary manganese is absorbed through the small intestine 2. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.3 mg manganese (starting in 2020) for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9) 4, 5. Presently, no RDA or recommended dietary allowance for manganese has been established; therefore, the Adequate Intake (AI) is used, since the AI is the estimated amount of the nutrient assumed to be adequate in a group of healthy people 1, 2. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals 4, 5. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels 4, 5. According to the FDA, manganese gluconate is generally recognized as safe (GRAS)(21CFR184.1452) 6, 7.

Manganese Gluconate is a manganese salt of gluconic acid 6, 8.

This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:

References

  1. Natural Medicines database. Professional monograph. Product ID no. 182. Last reviewed 9/26/2018. Last updated 9/25/2018. Subscription required. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/food,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=182
  2. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB). Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silcon, Vanadium, and Zinc. 2001. https://doi.org/10.17226/10026 (10. Manganese). Manganese chapter: https://www.nap.edu/read/10026/chapter/12 Full booklet: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/10026/dietary-reference-intakes-for-vitamin-a-vitamin-k-arsenic-boron-chromium-copper-iodine-iron-manganese-molybdenum-nickel-silicon-vanadium-and-zinc
  3. U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Medline Plus. Manganese. Last reviewed 9/25/2018. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/182.html
  4. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Strengthening knowledge and understanding of dietary supplement. Health information. Daily Values (DVs). https://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/dailyvalues.aspx
  5. Dietary Supplement Label Database. National Institutes of Health (NIH). A joint effort of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). https://www.dsld.nlm.nih.gov/dsld/dailyvalue.jsp
  6. U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR). 21CFR184.1452. Current as of 2/19/2019. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=8995d802092be4581696625a5d45a096&mc=true&node=se21.3.184_11452&rgn=div8 and eCFR main page: https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=3ee286332416f26a91d9e6d786a604ab&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title21/21tab_02.tpl
  7. U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). 21CFR184.1452. Current 4/1/2018. Last updated 9/4/2019. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=184.1452
  8. National Institutes of Health (NIH). National Library of Medicine (NLM). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Pub Chem. Open Chemistry Database. Compound Summary for CID 22988. Manganese (II) Gluconate. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/manganese_gluconate#section=Top