Niacin (as niacinamide)
Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin, also known as vitamin B3, nicotinamide, 3-Pyridinecarboxylic Acid, Nicotinic acid, or niacinamide 1, 2, 3, 4. Niacin is a precursor to the most central electron carrier substance in living cells, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), thus functioning in many metabolic pathways 2, 4. More than 400 enzymes need NAD to catalyze (react with or accelerate) reactions in the body 2, 5. Foods that contain niacin include animal-based foods, such as fish, beef, and poultry, providing about 5-10 mg niacin per serving and plant-based foods, like legumes, grains, and nuts, providing about 2-5 mg niacin per serving 2, 3, 4.
The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 20 mg (which will be changing to 16 milligrams (mg) NE, per eCFR (NE=Niacin equivalents, 1 mg NE= 1 mg niacin = 60 milligrams tryptophan 3, 4)) for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9) 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. 2, 10, 11, 12. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels 2, 6.
Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a form of the B-complex vitamin niacin. It is the principal form of niacin used in dietary supplements and fortified foods 1, 2, 3. Niacinamide is approved for use as a food additive by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)(21CFR 184.1530 and 21CFR 184.1535). 13, 14.
This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:
- Catalyst™ Caplets
- EMPACT+® Performance drink mix dietary supplement - Slimsticks
- U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). National Institutes of Health (NIH). MedlinePlus. Last updated 1/28/2019. Last reviewed 09/06/2018. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002409.htm and https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/924.html
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Niacin. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Niacin-HealthProfessional/
- Natural Medicines database. Professional monograph. Niacin. Product ID no. 924. Last reviewed 2/13/2019. Last updated 2/6/2019. Subscription required. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/food,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=924
- Food and Nutrition Board (FNB). Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (2000). Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. http://books.nap.edu/books/0309065542/html
- Penberthy WT, Kirkland JB. Niacin. In: Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. Present knowledge in nutrition, 10th ed. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell;2012:293-306.
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dietary Supplement Labeling Guide: Appendix B. Daily Values for Adults and Children 4 or more years of age. Last updated: 3/21/2018. https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/DietarySupplements/ucm070617.htm
- Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). Vitamins and Minerals chart. https://www.nutrition.gov/subject/whats-in-food/vitamins-minerals and https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/InteractiveNutritionFactsLabel/factsheets/Vitamin_and_Mineral_Chart.pdf
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Nutrition Facts Labels Programs and Materials, Updated 6/12/2018 https://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/ucm20026097.htm
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 21. 21CFR101.9. Part 101: Food Labeling. Subpart A—General Provisions. Sec 101.9 Nutrition Labeling of Food. Revised 4/1/2018. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=101.9 . Updated eCFR (Electronic Code of Federal Regulations: Updated 1/17/2019) https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=035b7897e83b6f17b40b74dc93e472ac&mc=true&node=se21.2.101_19&rgn=div8
- Dietary Supplement Label Database. National Institutes of Health (NIH). A joint efffort of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). https://www.dsld.nlm.nih.gov/dsld/dailyvalue.jsp
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Strengthening knowledge and understanding of dietary supplement. Health information. Daily Values (DVs). https://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/dailyvalues.aspx
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration. 14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily value for the Appropriate Nutrients. 2013 https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/UCM265446.pdf
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR). 21CFR 184.1535. Updated 1/25/2019. Niacinamide. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=27c41e956aaaede2241e0bc56da9ec2e&mc=true&node=se21.3.184_11535&rgn=div8
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR). 21CFR 184.1530. Updated 1/25/2019. Niacin. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=27c41e956aaaede2241e0bc56da9ec2e&mc=true&node=se21.3.184_11530&rgn=div8