Organic Arabica coffee beans
Coffee, first consumed as a beverage around 900 AD in Arabic countries, was introduced into Europe in the 16th century. Today it is an important beverage for billions of people and is thought to be second only to water as the most common beverage. The genus Coffea includes about 70 species, two of which are economically important. Coffea robusta accounts for about 40% of global consumption; Coffea arabica, which accounts for about 60% of consumption, is considered to have a superior flavor 1.
Coffee beans are the seed within the coffee fruit (cherry). Mature coffee cherries are picked and the outer soft fruit pulp is removed. The green coffee bean within is then roasted to a dark brown or black color and ground into a powder which is infused with hot water to produce a cup of coffee. Roasting develops the desirable flavors and fragrances that make coffee such a beloved beverage, and also exerts complex effects on the bean’s polyphenol—specifically phenolic acid—content. These phenolic acids are key to the health benefits attributed to regular coffee consumption2,3, at least in part due to their antioxidant effects4,5,6,7 .
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are the primary phenolic acid in coffee, particularly the caffeolyquinic acids (CQAs) 2. While they suffer significant losses during roasting (which is why green coffee has attracted the interest of health-conscious consumers) roasted coffee is probably the richest dietary source of CQAs. Regular coffee drinkers may easily consume 1-2 g CQAs per day, greatly exceeding the amount provided by intake of fruits and vegetables 1.
Large-scale population based studies indicate that regular, moderate intake of coffee supports cardiovascular health7,8 and longevity7,9,10. Multiple human clinical studies also indicate that intake of caffeinated coffee can improve cognitive function and/or alertness11,12,13. The caffeine in coffee, which increases energy expenditure 14 and thermogenesis 15, can thus be used to support healthy weight management.
Caffeinated products are not intended or recommended for children and those sensitive to caffeine. Pregnant or nursing women, those with a medical condition, and those taking medication should consult a healthcare professional before use of caffeinated products.
- Ludwig IA, Clifford MN, Lean ME, Ashihara H, Crozier A. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health. Food Funct. 2014;5:1695-717.
- Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:727-47.
- Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid.Med Cell Longev. 2009;2:270-8.
- Baeza G, Sarria B, Bravo L, Mateos R. Exhaustive Qualitative LC-DAD-MSn Analysis of Arabica Green Coffee Beans: Cinnamoyl-glycosides and Cinnamoylshikimic Acids as New Polyphenols in Green Coffee. J Agric Food Chem 2016;64:9663-74.
- Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B et al. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Plant Foods, Beverages and Oils Consumed in Italy Assessed by Three Different In Vitro Assays. J.Nutr. 2003;133:2812-9.
- Torres T, Farah A. Coffee, mate, acai and beans are the main contributors to the antioxidant capacity of Brazilian's diet. Eur J Nutr 2016.
- Bhatti SK, O'Keefe JH, Lavie CJ. Coffee and tea: perks for health and longevity? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2013;16:688-97.
- Rautiainen S, Levitan EB, Orsini N et al. Total antioxidant capacity from diet and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort of women. Am J Med 2012;125:974-80.
- Saito E, Inoue M, Sawada N et al. Association of coffee intake with total and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:1029-37.
- Ding M, Satija A, Bhupathiraju SN et al. Association of Coffee Consumption With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in 3 Large Prospective Cohorts. Circulation 2015;132:2305-15.
- Durlach PJ. The effects of a low dose of caffeine on cognitive performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;140:116-9.
- Hindmarch I, Fuchs HH, Erzigkeit H. Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1991;6:31-43.
- Johnson-Kozlow M, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E, Morton D. Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:842-50.
- Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Dulloo AG et al. The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2011;12:e573-e581.
- Belza A, Toubro S, Astrup A. The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009;63:57-64.