Thiamin (as thiamine hydrochloride (HCl)) – also known as Vitamin B1 or Thiamine
Thiamin is a water B-complex vitamin, also known as vitamin B1. It functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs) 1, 2. Dietary sources of thiamine include beef, pork, breads, seeds, and whole grain cereals 3, 4. Dietary thiamine is minimally absorbed by the small intestine 1, 3 and humans store only very small amount of thiamine in the liver 3, 5. Thiamine also helps maintain proper nerve function 5, 6. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 1.5 mg (which will be changing to 1.2 mg, per eCFR) thiamine for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9 and e-CFR) 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals 3, 11, 12, 13. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels 1, 2, 3, 7.
Thiamin hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt form of the B-complex vitamin thiamine 14, 15, 16. Both thiamine hydrochloride and thiamine mononitrate are the most commonly used forms of thiamine in supplements 3. Thiamine hydrochloride occurs as a white crystalline powder or as hygroscopic white crystals 15, 16. Thiamin hydrochloride is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use a nutrient supplement in foods (21CFR184.1875) 15, 16.
This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:
- EMPACT+® Performance drink mix dietary supplement - Slimsticks
- Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D. C: National Academy Press, 1998 https://www.nap.edu/read/6015/chapter/6 and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114310/
- Institute of Medicine (U. S.). Dietary Reference Intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes; Institute of Medicine (U. S.). Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins and Choline; Institute of Medicine (U. S.) Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Washington, D. C: National Academy Press, 2000. https://www.worldcat.org/title/dietary-reference-intakes-for-thiamin-riboflavin-niacin-vitamin-b-folate-vitamin-b-pantothenic-acid-biotin-and-choline/oclc/44858928
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Strengthening knowledge and understanding of dietary supplements. Thiamin. Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Updated 8/22/2018. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Thiamin-HealthProfessional/
- U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). Medline Plus. Thiamine. Last reviewed 04/06/2018. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/965.html
- Bemeur C, Butterworth RF. Thiamin. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2014:317-324.
- U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Medline Plus. Thiamin. Last updated 1/28/2019. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002401.htm
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dietary Supplement Labeling Guide: Appendix B. Daily Values for Adults and Children 4 or more years of age. Last updated: 3/21/2018. https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/DietarySupplements/ucm070617.htm
- Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN). Vitamins and Minerals chart. https://www.nutrition.gov/subject/whats-in-food/vitamins-minerals and https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/InteractiveNutritionFactsLabel/factsheets/Vitamin_and_Mineral_Chart.pdf
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Nutrition Facts Labels Programs and Materials, Updated 6/12/2018 https://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/ucm20026097.htm)
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 21. 21CFR101.9. Part 101: Food Labeling. Subpart A—General Provisions. Sec 101.9 Nutrition Labeling of Food. Revised 4/1/2018. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=101.9 . Updated eCFR (Electronic Code of Federal Regulations: Updated 1/17/2019) https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=035b7897e83b6f17b40b74dc93e472ac&mc=true&node=se21.2.101_19&rgn=div8
- Dietary Supplement Label Database. National Institutes of Health (NIH). A joint effort of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM). https://www.dsld.nlm.nih.gov/dsld/dailyvalue.jsp
- U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). Strengthening knowledge and understanding of dietary supplement. Health information. Daily Values (DVs). https://ods.od.nih.gov/HealthInformation/dailyvalues.aspx
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration. 14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily value for the Appropriate Nutrients. 2013 https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/GuidanceRegulation/UCM265446.pdf
- National Institutes of Health (NIH). National Library of Medicine (NLM). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Pub Chem. Open Chemistry Database. Compound Summary for CID 6202. Thiamine Hydrochloride. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/thiamine_hydrochloride#section=Top
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). 21CFR184.1875. Part 184 – Direct Food Substances Affirmed as Generally Recognized As Safe. Subpart B – Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS. Sec 184.1875 Thiamine hydrochloride. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=184.1875
- U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR). 21CFR184.1875. Updated 1/18/2019 . 184.1875 Thiamine hydrochloride. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=7a52b9adf1ba32a7d313400d5824d644&mc=true&node=se21.3.184_11875&rgn=div8 and https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=7a52b9adf1ba32a7d313400d5824d644&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title21/21tab_02.tpl