Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine hydrochloride and pyridoxal 5-phosphate)

Vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and the release of glucose from glycogen 1. Major sources of vitamin B6 include fortified, ready-to-eat cereals; mixed foods (including sandwiches) with meat, fish or poultry as the main ingredient; white potatoes and other starchy vegetables; and non-citrus fruits. Vitamin B6 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex formulations.

Vitamin B6 is generally considered safe in adults and children when used appropriately at recommended doses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a Reference Daily Intake (RDI) of 2.0 mg vitamin B6 for adults and children 4 or more years of age (21CFR101.9). RDIs are a set of dietary references for essential vitamins and minerals that are considered amounts sufficient to meet the daily requirements of healthy individuals. RDIs serve as the basis for calculating the percent daily value (%DV) amounts found on dietary supplement and food labels.

Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a form of vitamin B6 used in fortified foods and nutritional supplements. Pyridoxine hydrochloride is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as a direct food ingredient by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (21CFR184.1676).

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (P5P) is the active coenzyme form of vitamin B6, involved in amino acid metabolism and numerous other enzymatic reactions in the human body. Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate is considered a particularly useful nutrient supplement, because all other forms of vitamin B6 must be converted to P5P in the liver before they are considered active. The P5P form of vitamin B6 is typically found in foods of animal origin, such as meats, dairy products and eggs. No adverse effects have been associated with high intake of vitamin B6 from food sources 1.

This ingredient can be found in the following products in United States:


  1. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.